Megjelent az Art Limes Báb-Tár XXIX. száma
„A bábszínház lényege három partner találkozása: a színészé, a nézőé és a bábé. És nincs annak jelentősége, hogy a színész látható-e a néző számára vagy rejtetten, például egy paraván mögött játszik – ő akkor is mindig jelen van. ” (Halina Waszkiel)
T A R T A L O M
1. Báb és hagyomány/Puppet and Tradition
Takács Ágnes: A titokzatos Pulcinella. A karakter eredetének kérdései és egy erre reflektáló előadás The Mysterious Pulcinella. Questions on the Origin of the Character and a Reflective Performance
Borisz Goldovszkij: A csalogány meg a császár. Előszó helyett
The Nightingale and the Emperor. In Place of a Forward
Balogh Géza: Cseh–szlovák–magyar kapcsolatok a bábművészetben
Czech–Slovak–Hungarian Relationships in Puppetry
2. Báb és bábszínház/Puppet and Puppet Theater
Juhász Katalin: Mesélés kicsit másképp. Beszélgetés Badin Ádámmal
A New Twist on Old Stories. An Interview with Ádám Badin
Simon Annamária: „Olyan előadást akarok csinálni, amit jó szívvel és sokáig tudunk játszani…” Ziránó Színház – Varga Péterrel és Pfeifer Zsófiával Hottón
„I’d like to make a performance what we can play with all heart and for a long time…” The Ziránó Theater – With Péter Varga and Zsófia Pfeifer in Hottó
Balogh Géza: A másik moszkvai bábszínház. A Tyeatr Kukol
The Other Moscow Puppet Theater
Goran Gavrić: Még egy sikeres év. Beszámoló a 24. Szabadkai Nemzetközi Gyermekszínházi Fesztiválról
Another Successful Year. Report on the 24th International Children’s Theater Festival in Subotica
4. Portrégaléria/Portrait Gallery
Lenka Dzadíková: A szlovák bábjátszás eleven emlékezete: Vladimír Predmerský jubileuma
Living Memory of Slovak Puppetry: Vladimir Predmerský’s Jubilee
Balogh Géza: István öcsémhez. Nánay István nyolcvanéves
To my younger brother: István Nánay Turns 80
Marek Waszkiel: Bábművészet a bábjáték után
Puppetry after the Puppet
John Bell: Az übermarionettektől a manökenig. Gondolatok Craigről és Kantorról
Übermarionettes and Mannequins. Thouths about Craig and Kantor
Balogh Géza: Bábszínházi folyóiratok Oroszországból
Russian Puppetry Journals
Goda Móni: Bábok / Emberek, Tárgyak.
Puppets, People, Objects
Mikita Gábor: Tervek és történetek. Bródy Vera könyvéről
Ideas and Stories. On Vera Bródy’s Book
THE MYSTERIOUS PULCINELLA
The character of Pulcinella is well-known throughout the world, as are the very similar figures Polichinelle, Punch, Petruska or Vitéz László (Brave László), all of whom are integral parts of European puppet plays. In Naples, Pulcinella is even revered as the city’s hero. This star character of European puppetry, however, brings along a host of questions. In the first part of her article, the author deals with the following questions. Why is Pulicinella’s personality so complex? When and how was the character created? Was the first Pulicinella a glove puppet, a marionette or a commedia dell’arte character? What is the origin of the white clothes and black half-mask, and how does it differ from other similar figures? In his production, La nascità di Pulcinella (The Birth of Pulcinella), the Naples puppeteer Bruno Leone condenses the legends surrounding the character of Pulcinella and explains the uncertainties of the figure’s origin. The performance is neither pure puppetry nor commedia dell’arte, but, rather, can be interpreted as a combination of the two. La nascità di Pulcinella reflects on the various forms of the Pulcinella character, making maximum use of the space provided and deploying different puppetry techniques. Not only the dramatic text, but also the interaction between puppeteer and puppet honor the mysteries and secrets of Pulcinella’s origin that are hidden in the figure itself.
THE NIGHTINGALE AND THE EMPEROR
In this article, Russian puppetry historian Boris Goldovsky recounts the first chapter of a documentary novel about Obrastsov. It may be the first article to touch on a delicate topic, the relationship of the great puppeteer to the political system in which he spent his entire life and the way the collapse of that system affected him in his old age. Obrastsov reacted to Perestroika by turning the Lenin statue in his study toward the wall. When the author asked him why he had done that, he replied, “The Bolsheviks tricked us. They promised Communism and look at what we have now!” Obrastsov never did anything he needed to be ashamed of. He merely accepted this corrupt-to-the-core dictatorship, under which he and millions of his fellow human beings were forced to live, but which at the same time pampered and adored him. More than likely, he believed the lies of the propaganda machine with the naivety of a young child. He was perhaps only shocked by the assassination of his master and idol, Meyerhold, or that of Mihoels several years later. The title of this chapter is The Nightingale and the Emperor. Both characters of Hans Christian Andersen’s tale remind one of Obrastscov’s life and fate. He was simultaneously emperor and nightingale. Not only was Obrastsov the singer of beautiful songs, caged by the Communist system, but Obrastsov, he was the Emperor, trapped in his spacious, comfortable Soviet golden palace. Perhaps it is not coincidental that this Andersen tale never appeared on the program of the Central Puppet Theater in Moscow.
CZECH-SLOVAK-HUNGARIAN RELATIONSHIPS IN PUPPETRY
The article examines the interactions between Czech, Slovak and Hungarian cultures as fostered by their shared histories and geography. Balogh draws attention to the four generations of Hungarian directors who have studied at Prague’s Academy of Dramatic Arts (AMU). He describes the extended stay of Spejbl and Hurvinek Theatre in Budapest in 1954, which allowed Jan Dvořák to help Hungarian colleagues find modern means of expression, and he emphasizes the importance of Josef Krofta’s work for the Budapest Bábszínház in 2006 and Ondrej Spišák’s activity in Szombathely in 2013.
A NEW TWIST ON OLD STORIES
In this article, Katalin Juhász interviews Ádám Badin. Badin’s traveling theater, Meseszínház (Fairy Tale Theater), centered in Rožňava, Slovakia, celebrated its 20th anniversary in 2017. Their live performances incorporate Hungarian folk music, world music and interactive theatrical communication combined with traditional puppetry. It’s a kind of theater that is very important for children since it allows them to become a part of the story.
In addition to puppet plays derived from Hungarian folk tales, they have also present programs based on Kálmán Mikszáth’s stories, as well as French, Gypsy, Buryat and Indian folk tales.
Because of their social engagement, the theater was recently awarded the annual Prize for Tolerance and International Understanding by the International Ambassador Club.
THE ZIRÁNÓ THEATER
The Ziránó Theater was founded in 2007 when Péter Varga and Zsófia Pfeifer decided to leave their former city, Pécs, behind and become traveling puppeteers. That summer was very eventful for them; they visited Szilárd Boráros and his family in Hottó, began a close relationship with them and shortly thereafter decided to move to Hottó themselves. Varga says: “At the time, I was quite distressed and nervous about the future, but I knew I wanted to be involved with puppet theater. I want to make performances that I can be proud of for a long time. Of course, to do this, you have to choose creative partners who have the same goals and similar taste.”
The theater’s trademark is the glove puppet and characters from the commedia dell’arte. One of their glove puppet productions is Pulcinella Gardening, directed by Géza Kovács and premiered in 2008. Their performances generally stay in the repertoire for a long time, even as they bring out one or two new pieces every year.
THE OTHER MOSCOW PUPPET THEATER
The majority of works dealing with the history of Russian puppetry gives the impression that there has only been one puppet theater in Moscow since the 1930s, the Obrastsov Theater. This company’s global reputation and success have overshadowed the other full-time institutions of the capital, among others the Moscow Puppet Theater, which was founded in 1930. (In the beginning, it was known as the Children’s Book Puppet Theater, then renamed the First Moscow Puppet Theater. It took its current name in 1953.) Even the 2009 French and the 2017 English publications of the World Encyclopedia of Puppetry Arts fail to mention any other Moscow-based puppet theaters. (The otherwise vast and extraordinary chapter on Russia was compiled by Boris Goldovsky, Anna Ivanova, Natalia Raitarovskaya és Irina Zharovtseva.) Géza Balogh’s essay summarizes the 87 years of the Moscow Puppet Theater’s activities and tells the story of a puppet theater that has survived many political changes, tragic events and world wars. It begins with the arrival of the horse-drawn carriage, bearing the wandering comedians in 1930 and brings us up to the company’s most recent successes. This period began with productions of The Hedgehog and Petrushka and the Two Monkeys, followed by war and change of regime, and concludes with The Nutcracker, Masha and the Bear, Petrushka, The Magic Tinderbox and Snow Queen.
ANOTHER SUCCESSFUL YEAR
The year 2017 marked the 24th International Children’s Theater Festival in Subotica, Serbia. From its inception, Slobodan Marković has been the festival’s director. In this year’s competition, there were fourteen troupes from ten countries. The author describes the diverse topics and styles of these colorful performances, each with its own strengths and distinctive characteristics. He cites how productions from different countries apply a broad range of visual techiques to demonstrate very different worlds. Many other companies gave performances that made a profound impression on the audience members, but the winner of the Grand Prix was the Russian troupe, Vologda Regional Puppet Theater “Teremok” for its outstanding performance of The Story of Dionysius - The Icon Painter.
The festival was rounded out by animated films, book presentations and a conference, all presented in both Serbian and English.
LIVING MEMORY OF SLOVAK PUPPETRY
This is an interview with Vladimir Predmerský, who celebrated his 85th birthday in 2017. Not only do we encounter him at puppet theater performances, but also at theater and opera performances all over Slovakia. He never misses a festival, conference or exhibition opening. From the beginning, he has utilized his theoretical knowledge of dramaturgy and directing in practical stage work, and then again in his work for television. For more than twenty years, he was the television’s chief dramaturg for children’s programs. With his reviews, he has constantly been attentive to puppet theater performances. On top of that, he publishes reviews and studies and is working on the completion of a massive anthology, a book of studies, Slovak Puppetry from the 19th Century to the Present. This history of Slovak puppet theater will include its critical periods of development in essays by various authors.
TRIBUTE TO A CRITIC
In this article, Géza Balogh salutes the eighty-year-old István Nánay, one of our journal’s contributing authors and professional consultants. Balogh closes with remarks that are both heartfelt and true “ . . . Ethos is your greatest virtue. With it, you show respect to every artist and every work of art by your attention and your effect on the depth of performances. Even when you sometimes know that there in ‘the depths‘ there is nothing, nothing but bluff. But that must also be said. A doctor can be tactful when trying to give the patient a serious diagnosis. A critic misunderstands his calling if he believes that he can be forgiving. Of course, he has the right to err, but he has to give his opinion to the best of his ability without hedging. That’s the job. On this exceptional occasion, I wish for you to share your opinion with others for a long time to come, with your students, with those who dare to take on the job of creating theatrical performances. And very selfishly, I also hope to be able to keep reading and listening to your ever helpful and wonderful remarks for a very long time.“
PUPPETRY AFTER PUPPET
In this article, Marek Waszkiel examines current and past problems in the world of puppetry. He says that some ten years ago, we entered a new era of puppetry. After 1989, a lot of independent puppet troupes were founded. These, together with large institutional puppet theaters from the socialist period, reshaped the overall life of puppetry. Actually, everything changed – the space and background of theaters and puppet troupes, programs, qualifications of puppeteers, the educational system, the role of visual design, theatrical techniques. The shape of the puppet itself also went through a transformation: from rod and glove puppets and marionettes to masks, sculptures and deformed figures all the way to everyday objects. Even marionettes became actors. This development reached a point when puppets even began to disappear from the theaters. And since then, you’ve heard the laments about there being no puppets in puppet theaters. It’s possible classical puppets have lost their mark; rod and glove puppets are being used less and less. Still, puppetry is not in danger. That is to say, there are other kinds of processes. The author here examines the processes involved and describes the path the puppet theaters and the entire community of puppetry have taken.
ÜBERMARIONETTES AND MANNEQUINS
The basis of this bilingual volume with the subtitle Craig, Kantor et leurs héritages contemporains was a group of lectures presented at an international conference in 2012. As the cover page of the book tells us, “Researchers, scholars and artists from all over the world” examined a special arc of contemporary puppetry. The period of time in question extends from Edward Gordon Craig’s Übermarionette theory from the early 20th century to splendid stage performances by Polish actor from the late 20th century, Tadeusz Kantor. The purpose of this volume is to put these two giants of modern theatre under the microscope, including the influence of their ideas on contemporary puppetry, its makers and their productions. The diversity of subject matter succeeds in shedding light on many of the practices of contemporary European puppet and object theater.
RUSSIAN PUPPETRY JOURNALS
This article summarizes the last three issues of the journal co-produced by the Russian UNIMA Center and the S. Obratsov State Academic Puppet Theater. The journal was called Theater of Wonder and subtitled A Journal about People and Puppets. The 50-page periodical reports biannually on performances of its own theater, as well as other Russian and foreign puppetry events. The Man of Peace, an article in the 2016/1 issue, is based on an essay by the late Polish puppet theoretician and historian, Henryk Jurkowski, Teaching Philosophies in Puppet Theater. Neville Tranter’s Creative Process is the confessional autobiography of an Australian puppeteer living in the Netherlands. The next article summarizes the pedagogical theories in the French puppeteer, Eloi Recoing’s essay, The Art of Exile or Exile as Principle. Recoing is the director of IIM (Institut international de la marionnette) and ESNAM (École nationale superieure des arts de la marionnette) in Charleville-Méziѐres. Union of the Diverse is a notebook of a round-table discussions amongst puppeteers and pedagogues. An interview with Professor Nikolay Naumov analyzes the pitfalls and possibilities of a director’s education. The articles in Issue No. 24 call attention to the anniverary of the Obraztsov Theater. Dadi Pudumjee, President of UNIMA, remembers Sergei Obraztsov, who would be 117 this year. Other articles mention the theater’s exceptional “Chaplin”, the late actor Zinovy Gerdt. His most famous role was that of an impersonator in “Unusual Concert”, but he also played Adam in Divine Comedy, in addition to many other roles. He would be 102 years old this year. Alexey Bartosevich’s The Cannibal’s Boots and the Tsarina’s Shoes is a memoire, adding its personal notes to the events of the 85thanniversary of the Central Puppet Theater. On the occasion of the anniversary, there is a brief summary of its most important performances of the 21stcentury. Issue No. 25 features UNIMA and World Puppetry Day. The Editor-in-Chief’s introduction states: “This issue was created to show all the aspects of our celebration of the World Puppetry Day. Kind, childish, simple theatre, where the ruler is you – the Puppeteer.” Géza Balogh, author of the review, recommends the Central Puppet Theater and the journal to Hungarian readers with the following words: “Sergey Obraztsov was mistaken on one count. He announced that after his death, his theater would also die. That didn’t happen. Even 25 years after Obraztsov died, the institute bearing his name is alive and well. It doesn’t take advantage of its exceptional position. Those who continue working there consider it natural that the theater’s past obligates them to preserve traditions while simultaneously exploring new paths. The great puppet empire of Stalinist times is still capable of providing inspiration to those who wish to continue in its traditions. This conviction makes the journal Theater of Wonder so sympathetic and convincing.”
PUPPETS, PEOPLE & OBJECTS
Puppen, Menschen & Objekte is a bi-annual publication of the German Puppet Theater Association and serves primarily as a source of information for the professional community. It reports on past and upcoming events, introduces institutions and ensembles, announces meetings and tells about projects. Members of the association are responsible for the editorial work, as well as contributing articles. This gives the magazine its characteristically direct voice, diverse content and extremely wide spectrum. The individual issues are usually organized around a predetermined topic. A large number of the articles (for example, “Cultural Education and Theater Pedagogy”, “Collaborations”, etc.). has been commissioned by the editors. The magazine also offers a number of reflections on new productions, newly published books, festivals and conferences in the form of reviews, analyses and reports. PMO thus provides a unique insight into the events of contemporary puppet theater, figure theater and object theater. It gives a collective picture of members of a community in a collegial relationship. The article printed here gives an overview of the past two years since the 50th anniversary of the journal’s existence.
IDEAS AND STORIES
The author of this article reviews a book by puppet designer, Vera Bródy, which gives us a comprehensive picture of her life and work. For those who know her work, the volume is amazing simply because of its richness. Not only is the weight of her oeuvre extraordinary, but the book also includes fundamental thoughts on puppet theater that are indispensible for readers of all ages.
Summarizing her work from different viewpoints, critic Péter Molnár Gál, composer István Láng, and art director Dezső Szilágyi, contribute their comments, followed by Vera Bródy’s own responses. She writes similarly to how she designs: with her unique and unbelievably poignant humor, she portrays the worlds of fairy tales and brings characters to life. At first glance, she does nothing more than tell about her career. But at the same time, she outlines the history of the Hungarian State Puppet Theater, leading us from one epoch to another. And in the same self-evident, natural way, with charming irony, she makes correlations and provides insight into an era and a genre.